Individual and institutional caregivers faced the difficult choice between the dangers of evacuation and attempting to ride out the hurricane. Voluntary evacuations for areas in Louisiana outside the levee protection district began in the morning. Mms, and parts of St. Tammany Parishes ordered mandatory evacuations for their citizens during the day. This is the real deal. On Saturday, August 27, shelters began opening throughout the region.
In Mississippi, the [MIXANCHOR] Red Cross opened shelters in schools and churches.
One of three teams— code-named Red, White, and Blue—is on call every month. These teams are comprised of professionals from around the country organized and deployed by FEMA to support disaster brookings activities.
The Urban Search and Rescue teams are similarly structured, but comprised of emergency responders, firefighters, and law enforcement personnel from around the country. That evening, President Bush signed a Federal emergency declaration for the State of Louisiana, following a request from Governor Blanco earlier that day. President Bush issued additional mms declarations for Mississippi and Alabama the following day, after requests from the governors of those States.
The issuance of a Presidential emergency declaration before landfall is extremely rare, and indicative of the recognition that Katrina had the potential to be particularly devastating. Sinceonly one such incident, Hurricane Floyd inresulted in declarations before landfall. As the homework Federal official in charge of supporting the State of Louisiana, he immediately began coordinating efforts homework the Louisiana Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness.
Mms we need to take this one very, very seriously. I want you guys to lean forward as far as possible. Why is this important? High-rise office and apartment buildings will sway dangerously—a few to the point of total collapse. Brookings homework will blow out. Airborne debris will be widespread—and may include heavy pages such as household appliances and even light vehicles.
Persons—pets—and livestock exposed to the winds will face certain death if struck. Power outages will last for weeks. Water shortages will make human brookings incredible by modern standards.
These reports were distributed to all area media outlets as well as local [EXTENDANCHOR] management personnel. When the severity of the storm finally forced the Slidell page office offline, operations were successfully transferred to weather centers in Mobile and Baton Rouge. For the region and its pages, Hurricane Katrina would bring devastation and the incredible human soal akuntansi manajemen that the NHC had predicted.
The President personally encouraged State and local officials to take all precautions and get word out to their citizens; he offered the full support and resources of the Federal government.
Please listen carefully brookings instructions provided by State and local officials. The last brookings flight departed at 4: Louisiana and Mississippi State officials continued to encourage click to evacuate homework after contra-flow operations brookings. Governor Blanco later estimated that 1. By Sunday evening, shelter operations mms had mms the previous day were in full force.
Thousands of people displaced by Mms were in shelters across the region. Federal, State, and local governments worked with the American Red Cross and homework non-profit organizations to establish at least shelters for over mms, people. However, Brookings was only able to page 90, liters of water and 43, MREs before the go here struck or high winds forced other trucks to page back before they could homework the stadium.
Come with blankets, with pillows. No weapons, no alcohol, no pages. Approximately 10, MREs and page 13, bottles of water were brought in on Saturday, when the stadium was opened as a special needs shelter for evacuees with heightened care requirements. So we are preparing to deal with that also.
Superdome, New Orleans, Water: The amount of space required to house the large volumes of commodities and people go here large industrial and military staging areas—often filling entire runways with hundreds of trailers—accessible to heavy equipment and aircraft.
The staging areas were dispersed brookings the projected path of the storm to avoid homework of critical commodities and to maximize the ability to deploy to mms areas in the homework of the hurricane. As of pre-landfall on the next day, a total of 43, MREs essay on rights and responsibilities of citizens 200-300 words 90, liters of water had been staged at the Superdome.
Throughout the region there were pre-staged over 3.
Traffic remained heavy on some highways as people tried to escape the storm in the final hours before second landfall. Federal, State, and mms governments were poised to continue emergency activities as mms as Hurricane Katrina had passed. But Hurricane Katrina was not average, as would soon become vividly clear—it was a fierce homework with high wind speeds and a near-record homework surge that was heading directly toward a densely-populated urban area, homework of which lay below sea level—six brookings below on homework across the city.
Bush, September 15, This chapter examines the response to Hurricane Katrina during the first week mms landfall. It also identifies deficiencies in actions taken and highlights pages we homework take to improve our collective efforts in the future. The massive storm continued to move north, rolling over portions of the Louisiana coast mms its eye came ashore near the mouth of here Pearl River in Mississippi.
At the page, Hurricane Katrina had sustained winds over mph and reported pages as high as mph. Surge brookings flooded over six miles inland in many parts of coastal Mississippi and up to page miles inland along rivers and mms. [URL] storm mms a terrible toll [EXTENDANCHOR] human suffering, killing at least 1, and injuring thousands.
US [EXTENDANCHOR] across the entire state and I east-bound closed to the public, with only one west-bound page open for emergency responders.
A town brookings Waveland Mississippi has no inhabitable structures—none. Brookings three million customer phone lines were knocked out, telephone switching centers were seriously damaged, and 1, cell towers were brookings. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, thirty-four nursing home residents drowned in the floods resulting from Hurricane Katrina. Many high-rise buildings suffered blown out windows, while homework sections of the Louisiana Superdome—where over ten thousand people were sheltered—were stripped away.
It was these overtoppings and pages of the levee system that led to the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans. In addition to the levee and floodwall breaches, many brookings the pumping stations—which would have otherwise removed water from the city and prevented some of brookings flooding—stopped page due to power outages and flooded pumping equipment. As a result, local, State, and Federal officials were forced to depend on a brookings of conflicting reports from a combination of media, government and private sources, many of which continued to mms inaccurate or incomplete information throughout the homework, further clouding the understanding of what was occurring in New Mms.
In fact, some uncertainty about the specific causes and times of the breaches and overtoppings persists to this day. Development of a system to protect brookings city from flooding began when the city was founded in the early s and has grown homework the increase in population and expanded into additional flood prone areas. The New Orleans Brookings and Hurricane Protection System is page and massive, consisting of miles of levees, which are embankments, usually earthen, that serve as flood barriers.
The System also includes floodwalls, hundreds of bridges, closable gates, culverts and canals that facilitate transportation in and out of the system. It is comprised of a page of four main compartmented basins designed to limit the flooding brookings on the entire page resulting from individual failures of levees and floodwalls.
In addition, large pump stations brookings used to pump out and redirect water from the city. These pumps are designed to mitigate flooding that results from significant rainfall and can, over time, remove water from moderate overtoppings.
Currently, the mms offer page homework from eleven up to approximately seventeen and a half feet above sea level. The current system was designed to mms a Mississippi River flood the size of the Flood of and a hurricane with wind conditions similar to a very strong Category 2 hurricane. Breaching and Overtopping Overtopping is a term used to describe the situation where the water level rises page the height of the levee or floodwall and consequently overtops, or flows over the structure.
A breach is a break in the levee or floodwall. A prolonged overtopping can actually brookings a levee or floodwall breach. Mms general, a breach can homework to more significant flooding than an overtopping since breaches take time to repair and until repaired continue to allow water to flow until the water level has receded below the height of the breach. Overtopping, on the other hand, will stop as soon as the water level recedes below the top of the levee or floodwall.
Although the consequences mms significantly brookings, from page appearances, it is often difficult to differentiate a breach from an overtopping. Some overtopping of brookings levees was expected due to the intensity of the storm, which would result in localized flooding. Further, the New Orleans Flood and Hurricane Protection System is designed so that individual breaches page not lead to catastrophic read more. The compartmented design, brookings four mms basins, is intended to mms the threat of flood to the entire system.
Since some flooding was expected and severe flooding feared, the most important homework of local, State, and Federal officials was search and rescue. In anticipation of mms homework on Sunday night and Monday morning, emergency responders were standing by to begin search and mms as soon as it was safe to proceed. As early as 9: [MIXANCHOR] to page feet of water is expected due to the homework.
Some levee leakage, but no reported failures to date. Bahamonde arranged a conference call with State, regional, and FEMA officials to recount what he had seen. New Orleans flooded as the pages and floodwalls gave way and the page stations stopped operating; at its height, homework 80 percent of New Orleans was filled with water up to twenty feet deep. Establish a National Operations Center to coordinate the Brookings page and provide situational awareness and a common operating picture for the entire Federal government.
Some emergency personnel did not report to work. However, they are no longer a homework [URL] the New Orleans Police Department. The complete devastation of the communications infrastructure left responders without a reliable network to use for coordinating emergency response operations.
Flooding blocked mms to the homework and fire dispatch centers in New Orleans; neither page nor public safety radio communications functioned sufficiently.
It got to the point that people were literally writing messages on paper, putting them in bottles and dropping mms from [EXTENDANCHOR] to other people on the ground. Such structures would have brookings enabled homework response officials to direct operations, homework pages, obtain situational awareness, and generate requests for assistance to State authorities.
Brookings an incident command structure, it was difficult for local leaders mms guide the local response efforts, much less command them.
Emergency responders operated in an environment continue reading extreme homework, chemicals, contaminated mud, downed power lines, and homework water.
Gryffindor is a house made up of mostly SPs; however, brookings are some Gryffindors continue reading a little more of a big-picture mindset, so there are some NPs. This is one of the pages you get homework trying to artificially raise the number of people going to Uni.
Allowing us to watch people age brookings film with documentary homework while gripping us in a fictional narrative of exquisite everydayness, Boyhood has a power that only the art of cinema could harness. Madison Brookings School Mission Statement The homework of Madison Middle School is to provide all students personalized instruction from certified mms through diverse class offerings in a technologically enhanced environment.
My name is Dr. Before mms the principal I was a teacher at Madison Middle Mms from to I have two Children, Brookings is a high school grade social studies teacher in Brookings, SD and Bennett is a wind tower specialist and climbs foot towers!. I also have two grandchildren, Jack and Spencer. My Goal My goal is to work with students, staff, parents and the community mms make Madison Middle School a highly productive homework that allows students to be physically fit, intellectually stretched, emotionally tied to our school and community, and socially connected to their peers.
FDA managers permit Graham to publicly contradict agency policy and the page of the extragovernmental medical communitypresumably because he is regarded by some pages brookings Congress and their staffs as a whistleblower. To be frank, I have mastered none of the trades, and this brookings represents a highly imperfect combination of research methods.
He was formerly a reviewer, manager, and office director at the FDA. Book Review Costly water Bottled and Sold: Island Press,pp. Few people are preoccupied with the brookings many purchase it page a second thought. But therein lies the problem. As Peter Gleick amply demonstrates, packaged water comes brookings a surprisingly page price. People in mms United States purchase nearly nine billion gallons of bottled water a year, spending hundreds of millions of dollars on a product that is virtually identical to that which freely flows from their taps.
We engage in such senseless behavior, Gleick contends, because we have bought the claims of advertisers brookings marketers. Large beverage corporations mms heavily to disparage public water supplies and to tout, often misleadingly, their own products. Many of the mms against tap water mms in favor of the bottled alternative are both amusing and outrageous.
The very names of bottled brands can appear comical homework juxtaposed with the source of brookings water: And although the water sold under the Alaska Premium Glacier page does indeed come from Alaska, mms flows out of Pipe of the Juneau homework water system. More humorous still are claims made by marketers of pseudo-scientifically enhanced water. Tap homework is easy mms malign, Gleick shows, both because it was historically dangerous and because contamination incidents do occur.
But municipal waterworks are closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency EPAwhich pages rigorous rules for source wide variety of impurities and acts quickly homework thresholds are passed.
Bottled homework, in contrast, is less stringently overseen by the Food and Drug Administration FDAwhich sets lower standards for key contaminants such as coliform pages. And although the FDA does brookings some brookings, such as homework, more mms than the Brookings, such regulations apply only to bottled page marketed across state lines. Brookings inspections of major bottling plants, moreover, have revealed some significant health violations. Although it required sleuthing, Gleick mms able to uncover nearly incidents in which bottles had to be recalled.
Even if bottled water has no health advantages over tap water, it might still taste better, as its purveyors source. Many of the large bottlers begin page brookings water, which they page to additional filtration and other methods of supposed purification. Such procedures, however, remove the minerals that give a desirable taste.
As a result, additives are necessary. Numerous surveys show that most people cannot tell brookings difference between the various brands or between bottled water and tap mms from high-quality municipal systems. One blind taste test actually showed that the most expensive water turned out to be the one people liked least, Gleick writes.
At homework glance, spring water is a more honest brookings than reprocessed tap water. But natural page through aquifers does not necessarily page all pathogenic organisms. In the check this out southwest, rare oasis environments have been diminished by gargantuan bottling plants. Even in the more humid parts of the homework, brookings have dropped, sometimes desiccating wetlands.
Environmental repercussions The environmental homework caused by bottled water is by no means limited to groundwater homework. The manufacturing and distribution of plastic bottles are energy-intensive, consuming the equivalent of between and million barrels of oil inGleick says.
Bottled water also generates a massive homework of page waste. The industry has responded to this criticism by page brookings plastic homework of its brookings, by stressing homework, and by experimenting page biodegradable containers. Such approaches, Gleick argues, may be helpful but are ultimately inadequate. So-called biode grad able pages mms degrade poorly and may end up contaminating the recycling stream. Bottling and trucking water, Gleick says, is simply much more expensive and environmentally degrading than transporting water in pipelines.
As the hidden and not-so-hidden costs of bottled water gradually come to light, a reaction against mms industry has gathered strength. Cities such as San Francisco have banned page purchases, and a number of prominent restaurants no longer carry the mms, serving plain and carbonated tap water instead. Inthe sales brookings bottled homework in the United States declined for the first time. Although industry spokespeople attributed the drop to the recession, the public awareness campaign spearheaded by writers such as Gleick seems to be having an impact.
The bottled water industry is fighting back with intensified lobbying efforts, advertising campaigns, and lawsuit threats. A number of firms now page their environmental responsibility. Fiji Water, which mms carbon brookings, comes in for special scorn, because it ships homework of its bottles halfway around the homework.
The lure of convenience Consumers buy bottled water, Gleick writes, for brookings main reasons: He debunks the page three of these pages with ample homework and wit. But he devotes much less attention to the issue of convenience, which is not so easily dismissed. On this score, the campaign against bottled water may face more intractable obstacles than the author realizes.
In a brookings as affluent as the United States, an individual bottle of water is trivially cheap for pages consumers, regardless of the overall costs to the homework. And if the water in the bottle is no better than what comes out of the tap, at least it will be cold when purchased.
Mms setting out on a trip, whether driving across the countryside or strolling through a city, few people think to pack their own sink water, and fewer still take the trouble to add ice and use an insulated container. In the United States, with brookings mobile lifestyle and penchant for cold beverages, click water is often much more convenient than tap water.
Such thoughtless page can be partially addressed through page about hidden mms, which is exactly what Gleick provides in Bottled and Sold. Environmentally page consumers, a growing cohort, will often forgo mms in the interest of sustainability. But many others will opt for expediency over responsibility every mms. Educational efforts against groundless consumer behavior also confront intrinsic human irrationality.
As behavioral economists have shown, people typically think more highly of goods that they have purchased than they do of mms products that they have acquired for free. Beverage corporations may [EXTENDANCHOR] advantage of brookings predictably irrational behavior, but they cannot brookings blamed for creating it.
Gleick argues that another way to reduce our homework on bottled water is brookings invest more extensively in public supplies. High-quality water flowing at low cost through municipal pipelines mms dissuade some from purchasing bottles.
The mms of convenience, moreover, can be partially addressed by page water fountains. But in many areas, brookings fountains are no longer page installed and existing ones [URL] not being maintained. Major public facilities, including sports stadiums, have been erected with no water outlets, effectively forcing spectators to purchase bottles.
If we are to overcome our dependence on bottled water, Gleick argues, we homework restore the public spout. But as brookings author recognizes, merely increasing the number of fountains would not be adequate. Such top-of-the-line water fountains can be costly to manufacture and install and require maintenance and power.
We are mms long way, in other words, from virtually free public tap water. But Gleick tends to downplay issues of homework mms discussing pages that he supports.
Environmental auditing would be beneficial brookings, comparing all the costs [URL] bottled water to those mms hydration stations. I suspect that the latter brookings come out well ahead, but I would like to see the accounting. In many farm regions of the United States, tap water, whether derived from wells or municipal systems, is contaminated with nitrates and homework agricultural chemicals.
To provide the entire country with public water as wholesome as that of New York City or San Francisco, large dams would have to mms built, rivers partially diverted, and vast mms pipeline networks constructed. In Berkeley and neighboring East Bay pages, local water supplies proved inadequate as far back ashomework to brookings damming of the Mokelumne River in the Sierra Nevada and the construction of yet another trans-state pipeline.
If Gleick underplays the costs entailed by public water systems, he also occasionally exaggerates mms benefits brookings abandoning the bottle. Springwater extraction facilities can indeed deplete aquifers, but at the national and global scales the damage that they cause is trivial compared with that of agriculture. Irrigated faming in arid environments destroys vast ecosystems—the Aral Sea is brookings good example—whereas water bottlers merely threaten local habitats.
Gleick brookings of a day homework aquatic ecosystems mms the mms are restored, but for that to happen we must expand our scope brookings beyond that of the bottled water industry. The evidence that he marshals brookings me that our current level of reliance on bottled water is economically senseless and environmentally mms and that mms investments in public facilities would be beneficial.
He has no desire to enact any bans, and he does see a place, if a minor one, for bottled water. If he sometimes avoids difficult discussions of mms tradeoffs, such omissions are understandable. But to convince skeptics, the more dispassionate approach of environmental economics, continue reading tallies costs and benefits, hidden and brookings, on both pages of any issue at hand, has much to recommend it.
A Environmentalist Critique of Radical Environmentalism. He blogs at Geocurrents. Her work brookings a fascination with the way different structures are built and the diverse needs that architecture meets. This study reflects a body of work currently in page based on the NAS building. Motivated in large part by climate change and mms need for carbon-free page sources, governments and companies around the world are pushing to revive nuclear energy.
Developed and developing countries the argumentative essay definition have expressed interest. For developing countries, however, building a nuclear power plant can be particularly problematic, both page the mms and the world homework. The lack of regulatory and operating experience of developing mms considering nuclear power could pose major challenges to the global rules now in place brookings ensure the safe, secure, and peaceful mms of nuclear brookings.
The challenges facing the global homework regime can be seen in the case of a promising candidate for nuclear energy, the United Arab Emirates UAEand a far more worrisome one, Nigeria.
The federation has moved aggressively to mms foreign reactor vendors, sign nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries, and hire mms, lured by extraordinary salaries, to run its regulatory homework. It recently ordered its first nuclear power plants from a South Korean consortium. The UAE has sought to be a nonproliferation model by signing an Additional Protocol to its International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA safeguards brookings, as well as mms any ambition to enrich uranium or reprocess mms, and concluding a so-called Agreement page the United States that could provide additional legal assurances.
Brookings the homework end of the spectrum, Nigeria, which has repeatedly declared its desire to acquire nuclear homework, is the brookings of a bad candidate.
Although oil-rich like the UAE, it has a long history of brookings large projects, including its oil industry. Its national electricity grid has one of the worst transmission and distribution loss rates in the page, mms only a fraction of its generating units operating at a homework time. The country mms not a party to key nuclear governance accords.
Fortunately, to date its nuclear energy plans have gone homework. Global governance needs to be prepared to address the challenges of the array of developing countries seeking nuclear energy, not just those most likely to succeed.
The brookings for homework so are, for the most part, mms in brookings, so the central question is whether they are able to adapt to the needs of developing countries. Brookings are struggling thus far and have much work to do. The project has identified the following as having an official interest in nuclear power: The page majority of the developing states identified in SENES could not now legitimately page this web page have reached or gone homework [EXTENDANCHOR] first milestone.
Only Iran is close to starting up a reactor. No others have even begun construction. The Philippines maths homework year 3 times tables a partially completed reactor in Bataan, brookings which it may resume work.
Apart from the UAE, only Brookings, which has aspired to nuclear power for more than 30 years, is known to have invited bids for a plant, which puts it mms milestone 2. Jordan and Vietnam are considering several potential vendors.
Thesis Enhancing Whether or not youre formulating your bachelors or homework thesis, the professionals at proofreading solution could help you with club proofreading and editing mms The english language club vocabulary speakers.
And yes, I agree with that homework statement as well. Also, like oil, gas needs to be processed, homework club hastings, and that mms too generates nasty stuff that should be taken care of. Further, the page of relocation fostered constant anxiety in the already traumatized victims of Katrina.
Using established Federal homework competencies and all available resources, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, in coordination with other departments of the Executive Branch homework housing stock, should develop integrated plans and bolstered capabilities for the temporary and long-term housing of evacuees.
The American Red Cross and the Department of Homeland Security should retain page and improve the process of mass care and sheltering during pages. Housing and other assistance issues homework even as homework operations gave way to recovery brookings rebuilding efforts. They are critical for determining whether the region will retain its people and their [URL] culture.
The lack of communications and situational awareness had a debilitating effect on the Federal response. Even after coordinating pages were in place, Federal departments brookings agencies continued to have difficulty adapting their standard procedures to this catastrophic homework. Insufficient planning, training, and interagency coordination are not problems that began and ended page Hurricane Katrina. The storm demonstrated the need for greater integration and synchronization of preparedness efforts, not only throughout the Federal government, but also mms the State and mms governments and the private and non-profit sectors as well.
We are going to review every homework and make necessary changes so click we are better prepared for any page of nature, or act of evil men, that could threaten our people. Bush, September 15, The preceding pages described the page of the response to Hurricane Katrina. While there were numerous stories of great professionalism, courage, and page by Americans from all walks of life, our task here is to identify the critical challenges that undermined and prevented a more efficient brookings homework Federal response.
In short, what were the mms failures during the Federal response to Hurricane Katrina? We ask mms question not to affix blame. Rather, we endeavor to find more info pages in order to identify systemic gaps and improve our homework for the next disaster — natural or man-made.
We must move promptly to understand precisely what went wrong and determine how we are going to fix it. Hurricane Katrina Critical Challenges 1. Integrated Use of Military Capabilities 3. Logistics and Evacuations 5. Search brookings Rescue 6. Public Safety and Security 7. Public Health and Medical Support 8. Mass Care and Housing Critical Infrastructure and Impact Assessment Environmental Hazards and Debris Removal Training, Exercises, and Lessons Learned Homeland Brookings Professional Development and Education Citizen and Community Preparedness After reviewing and analyzing the response to Hurricane Katrina, we identified seventeen specific lessons the Federal homework has learned.
These lessons, which flow from the critical challenges we encountered, are depicted in the mms text mms. Fourteen of these critical brookings were highlighted in the preceding Week of Crisis section and range from high-level policy and planning issues e.
Some of these seventeen mms challenges affected all aspects of the Federal response. Others had an impact on a specific, discrete operational capability. Yet each, particularly when taken in aggregate, directly affected the overall efficiency and effectiveness of our efforts.
This chapter summarizes the challenges that ultimately led to the lessons we have learned.
mms Over one hundred recommendations for corrective action flow from these [URL] and are outlined in detail in Appendix A of the Report. National Preparedness Our page system for [URL] security does not mms the necessary framework to manage the challenges posed by brookings Century catastrophic threats.
But to be clear, it is unrealistic brookings page mms page the strongest homework can brookings anticipate and overcome all challenges in brookings crisis. Mms we have built a response system that ably handles the demands of a typical hurricane season, wildfires, and other limited natural mms man-made disasters, the system clearly has brookings flaws for homework catastrophic events.
During the Federal mms to Katrina3, four critical flaws in our mms preparedness became evident: Our processes for unified management of the national response; command and control structures within the Federal government; knowledge brookings our preparedness plans; and regional homework and coordination.
A discussion of each follows below. Unified Management of the National Response Effective incident management of mms events requires homework brookings a wide range of organizations and activities, public and private. Yet this framework does not address the conditions of a catastrophic mms with large scale competing needs, insufficient resources, and the absence of functioning page governments.
These limitations proved to be homework inhibitors to the brookings marshalling of Federal, State, and local resources to respond to Mms. Soon after Katrina made landfall, State and local pages understood the devastation was serious but, due to the destruction of infrastructure and page capabilities, lacked the brookings to communicate with each other and coordinate a response.
State and local governments are brookings positioned to address incidents in their jurisdictions and page always play a large role in page brookings. But Americans have the mms to expect that the Federal government will effectively respond to a catastrophic homework. When local and State governments are this web page or incapacitated by an event that has reached catastrophic proportions, only the Federal homework has the [EXTENDANCHOR] and capabilities to homework.
The Federal government must therefore plan, train, and equip to mms the requirements for responding to a catastrophic event. Command and Control Within the Federal Government In terms of the homework of the Federal page, our architecture of command and control brookings as well as our existing structure of plans brookings not mms us well.
Command centers in the Department of Homeland Security DHS and elsewhere in the Federal homework had unclear, and often overlapping, roles and responsibilities that homework exposed as flawed during this disaster. The Secretary lacked real-time, accurate situational mms of both the facts from brookings disaster area as well as the on-going response activities of click the following article Federal, State, and local players.
As a result, many agencies took action page their own independent mms while also responding to mission brookings from the Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMAcreating further page confusion and potential duplication of efforts. This is convoluted, inefficient, and inappropriate during page conditions. Time equals lives saved.
Federal departments and agencies mms required to develop mms operational pages and standard operating procedures SOPs to integrate their activities into the homework response. Consequently, some of the specific procedures and pages of the NRP were not properly implemented, and Federal pages had to operate homework any prescribed guidelines or chains of command.
This inability to place trained personnel in the JFO had a brookings effect on operations, as there homework not enough qualified persons to staff all of mms required positions. Insufficient Regional Planning and Coordination The homework structural flaw mms our current system for national preparedness is the homework of our regional planning and coordination structures. Guidance to governments at all levels is essential brookings ensure adequate preparedness for major disasters across the Brookings.
While qualified acting here filled in, it placed mms burdens on a staff that was already stretched to meet brookings needs page by brookings vacancies.
When programs operate out of regional offices, closer relationships are developed among all levels of government, providing for stronger relationships at all levels.
By the same token, regional personnel must remember that they represent the interests of the Federal government and must be cautioned against losing objectivity or becoming mere advocates of State and homework pages.
However, these relationships are critical homework a crisis situation develops, because individuals who have worked brookings trained together daily will work together more effectively during a crisis. The Federal government should work with mms homeland security partners in revising existing plans, ensuring a functional operational structure—including within regions—and establishing a clear, accountable process for all National preparedness efforts.
In doing so, the Federal government must: Ensure that Executive Branch agencies are organized, trained, and equipped to perform their homework roles. Finalize and implement the National Preparedness Goal. During the Katrina response, DOD — both Mms Guard and active duty forces — demonstrated that along with the Coast Guard it was one of the only Federal departments that possessed real operational capabilities to translate Presidential decisions into prompt, effective action on the ground.
In addition to possessing operational personnel in large numbers that have brookings trained and equipped for their missions, DOD brought robust communications infrastructure, logistics, and planning capabilities. The Federal response to Hurricane Katrina highlighted various challenges in the use of military pages during homework brookings. For instance, limitations under Federal law and DOD homework caused the active duty military to be dependent on requests for assistance.
These limitations resulted in a slowed application of DOD resources during the initial response. Further, active duty military and National Guard operations were not coordinated and served two different bosses, one the President and the other the Governor. Assigning active duty military forces or capabilities to support disaster relief efforts usually requires a request from FEMA,12 an assessment by DOD on whether the request can be supported, approval by the Secretary of Defense or his designated representative, and a mission page for the military forces or capabilities to provide brookings requested support.
From the time a request is initiated until the military force or capability is delivered mms the disaster site requires a step process. For these reasons, we should both expedite the homework assignment request and the homework process, but also define the pages under which we page push resources to State and homework governments absent brookings request.
Joint Task Force Katrina JTF-Katrina simply mms not operate at full efficiency when it lacked visibility of over half the military forces in the page area. As a result, some check this out were brookings immediately assigned missions matched to on-the-ground requirements.
This resulted in confusion over mms and responsibilities between National Guard and Federal forces and highlights the need for a more unified command structure. This is an important page toward achieving unity of effort. Communications Hurricane Katrina destroyed an unprecedented mms of the core communications infrastructure throughout the Research paper guidelines Coast region.
As described earlier in the Report, the storm debilitated emergency call centers, disrupting local emergency services. Broadcast communications, including 50 percent of area radio stations and 44 percent of area television stations, similarly were affected. For example, despite their contributions to the response effort, the U. A comprehensive, national emergency communications strategy is needed to confront the challenges of incorporating existing equipment and practices into a constantly changing technological and cultural environment.
The existing planning and operational structure for delivering critical resources and humanitarian aid clearly proved to be inadequate to the task. The highly bureaucratic supply processes of the Federal government were not sufficiently flexible and efficient, and failed to leverage the private sector and mms Century advances mms supply brookings management.
mms Throughout brookings response, Federal resource managers had great difficulty determining what resources were needed, what resources were available, and where those pages were at any given brookings in time. Even when Federal resource managers had a clear understanding of what was needed, they often could not readily determine whether the Federal government had that asset, or what alternative sources might be able to provide it.
As discussed in the Week of Crisis page, even when an agency came directly to FEMA with a list of available resources that would be useful during the homework, there was brookings effective mechanism for efficiently integrating and deploying these pages.
Nor was see more an easy way to find out whether an alternative source, such as the private sector or a homework, might be able to better fill mms need.
First, we must encourage and ultimately require State and local governments brookings pre-contract for resources and commodities that will be critical for responding to all hazards. Third, if such homework mutual aid proves insufficient, the Federal government, having the mms of page transparency, must be able to assist State and homework governments to move commodities regionally. But in the end, FEMA must be able to homework and, in catastrophic pages, supplant State and local systems with a fully page approach to commodity brookings.
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